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by Hakeem IBRAHIM

Our insatiable appetite for personal growth only fuels our dependency on ever dwindling resources - without replenishment or reprise and to devastating effect.

Simply put; where some are prospering, others are falling further and further behind and this gap between these two global communities of the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’ is widening at an alarming rate. More than 80 per cent of the world’s population now lives where income differentials are widening.

In the first instance, we can’t be here without changing. Everything about this world is changing each moment. It may seem as if some things are relatively stable, but the truth is that, we can’t see much of the change happening in this world. On the microscopic level, everything is changing constantly. We can, of course, see our lives visually, but even there we may not be aware of all the changes going on. Our relationships change, if not entirely, the circumstances change, our feelings change, other people’s feelings change, nobody is ever exactly the same each moment.

The global recession, for example, has claimed many victims, most are families. Families that were once self-sufficient are destitute, homeless, and unable to provide basic nutrition for their loved ones. And as the recession continues the gap between those who have and those who do not will continue to widen. The world needs change if we are to give ourselves a fighting chance to tip the scales of poverty back in our favor.

I have to, sincerely, embrace the changes that are happening in my life; I know they are leading me to greater heights!

Knowing fully that, unless we try to do something beyond what we have already mastered, we will never grow. More so, I will liken a change in an organization, like this to how the leafy trees do not cling to their leaves too firmly, therefore, such change is about releasing the old leaves to make ways for new ones.

As changes take place in different aspects of our individual life, so also, it happens to non-living items or better still, materials purposely used in our lives, for betterment. Such as, change in our taste for wears, cell phones, cars, buildings etc all these are expected in human life, because, change is a necessary part of life. Without change there would be no life at all. Our lives are actually fueled by change, though most of us want a certain amount of stability. But, “if we always do what we have always done, we will always get what we have always got”.

In view of the above, I have the course to appreciate Almighty ALLAH for the un-regrettable course of service with my employer – Zarm Poultry and Feed Mill Industry, at different capacities, through Supervisor 1, Senior Supervisor, Asst. Manager and Acting Manager (within and outside the establishment) since 2008.

Firstly, having worked with:

  1. At least one of the large farms in the whole of Nigeria.
  2. Great men and women who are Icons and Stars as management team and staffs within and outside my technical department
  3. And having good relationship with external bodies in my chosen industry and finally
  4. And stage a come-back to re-learn and re-enrich my competencies, when I realized that, it is technically ideal to be a supervisor on a lager establishment than a manager over a small holding, for better experiences and exposure. (There will always be important reasons to opt for a 2nd degree at the same university where you bagged 1st degree).

Secondly, for having stepped on many toes, a normative process in the course of discharging daily or routine duties; majorly due to:

  1. Management theory which says “Theory without practice is conjuncture and is usually irrelevant, and practice without theory is idiosyncratic and unsustainable, and
  2. My attention to details, fairly disciplined nature and close-monitoring policies which are not only limited to the following ways:
  • Attendance from resumption to closing time
  • Assigned duties throughout the required period
  • Guiding against clock-watching attitude of staff, undeserved permission and absence with flimsy excuses
  • Resource management skill to refurbish used items, to delay issuance of new ones, when necessary, but against the will of staffs in most cases
  • Policy of “a full day’s pay demands a full day’s work”, except when justified
  • Monitoring the exact days of permission, off-duty, absence and leave of absence. All of which and many others are aimed at not cheating one to favor another i.e. human justification of fairness to all.

“When people understand the “why”, they are more likely to accept the “what”

          Today I seek forgiveness from everyone who might have been offended by my actions and activities; in as much as I did that in good faith and for the purpose mentioned – “fairness to all”.

Conclusively, I believe we are parting now to meet later by “HIS GRACE” at higher levels. The world is now technologically a global village; people meet on different platforms or social hubs, not only to start relationships but also to continue, despite their distances apart. Therefore, if you are reading this, then you are already on one of my links.



“The fact that you aren’t where you want to be, should be enough motivation for a step forward”.

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The Role of Organizations' Management in Managing Absenteeism

by Hakeem IBRAHIM

It is glaring that absence continues to cost many companies huge amount of money each year; due to this fact, virtually almost all business organizations now have absence management policies in place. Many organizations are not tracking absence accurately and believe that simply requiring a physician’s note to verify absence is a sufficient measure to manage it. In addition, when it comes to keeping workers on the job regularly, the systematic description of employees' strength and weakness is either well defined by the senior management through a well documented company policy or not made to rest solely upon the organization’s supervisors; more and more employers are losing ground.

Most companies begin operational activities from the scratch and after many years rose to standardized organizations, yet, the transformation of doing things in the right ways, under the right structuring is lacking. For these companies, the responsibility for managing absenteeism has fallen primarily on immediate supervisors. These supervisors are often the only people who are aware that a certain employee is absent. Actually, supervisors are in the best position to understand the circumstances surrounding an individual’s absence and to notice a problem at an early stage. Therefore, their active involvement in the organization’s absence procedures is pivotal to the overall effectiveness and future success of an absence policy or program.

Supervisors, sadly, have no guidance, training, or employees’ behavioral manual to effectively manage absenteeism that are most commonly well thought and planned ahead by employees, as it is believed that, almost two out of three employees who don’t show up for work are neither physically ill nor with genuine reasons. Unfortunately, supervisors are left on their own to carry the often unpopular task of identifying, confronting and resolving the absence abuse. In addition, supervisors ensure that work is appropriately covered during the employee’s absence together with other critical actions, such as:

  • ensuring that employees are fully aware of the organizational policies on absence
  • first contact when an employee phones in with sick complaints
  • maintain detailed, up-to-date records of absence of employees e.g. date, reasons for absence/nature of illness, expected return date, doctor’s report etc
  • identify the trends of absence that cause for concern, and
  • implement disciplinary procedure where and when required

To this end, there exists great scope for organizations to improve their absence and attendance management policies; to achieve this, absence management policy must recognized and take into account the different causes of absence like - poor health, smoking, excessive use of  alcohol, lack of exercise, body weight, job and career satisfaction, company commitment and culture, stress, working pattern, lack of flexible working arrangement, gender and number of children under 16 etc and develop appropriate policies that focus on these causes. The senior management team further has a role to play in supporting the supervisors to ensure comfortable and competent role of managing absenteeism through well written and explained (HR) human resource departmental activities such as, clearly defined guidelines on the recommended steps to be taken in cases where short-term absences are considered to be above an acceptable level at a particular period of time, the regularity of policy implementation, knowing fully that, theory without practice is conjecture and is usually irrelevant; while practice without theory is idiosyncratic and unsustainable. All parties should be in the know of the aim of absence policies and procedures. If there are any discrepancies between departments; a policy may lose its effectiveness.

In conclusion, senior management can reduce absenteeism, lost productivity and significant cost when they understand the causes of absenteeism at their organization and adopt targeted strategies to address them. Therefore, to effectively manage absenteeism from the senior management level, it involves not only identifying combination of factors to determine the level of absence in an organization, but also suggest options to reduce the menace through promoting staff good health, addressing workplace influence, provision of flexible and ideal work environment to allow staff to manage kinship responsibilities. 

All these and other actions in place minimize absence caused by these factors. A good absence management policy should also reflect the following key elements – company attendance encouragement culture, clearly defined employee roles, clarity of work procedures etc. Also, the managers have to feel confident in their ability to handle absence, before they can be effective, fairness and individual circumstances should be indentified because “there is no point in treating someone with a broken leg the same way as someone with repeated one day sicknesses”


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Continuity of the Current Government in Nigeria

by Hakeem IBRAHIM

The caliber and set of people already and are most likely in the covers of the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC); the huge amount of money in foreign currencies already siphoned out of the Nigerian government purse, and being currently investigated by the commission, the current and future damaging effects of their actions in such areas and aspects of our lives and our economy, such as, countless number of lost lives, scattered or displaced families, decadence in the standard of our education , poor road networks, poor rural/urban development, food shortages, lack of funds to remunerate currently serving, and pension for retired security personnel.

The bartered condition of our refineries where the so-called crude oil and its products, not minding the influence on our economy, are supposedly coming from, the continued neglect of the agricultural sector, and finally, the robust effects on other countries’ economy where our monetary resources are kept, all of which are heart-throbbing painful issues.

With the current fight against insecurity, insurgence, corruption, and highly placed government officials unexpectedly and seemingly found wanting, while the incumbent government still promised to step on many more toes.

Should you agree that, the immediate past Nigerian government was insensitive to the key issues affecting Nigerians – Security and Corruption, at the magnitude they are being manifested and also unfolded.

Here are my questions for you:

  1. Do you pray to see the current President Buhari ruling beyond a single term of four years; reflect on the exit of his government in 1985, in the same trend and same country?
  2. Would you advice President Buhari, been a former military head-of-state and by his democratic government on-going actions and activities on these two issues, to lay his life for Nigeria and Nigerians?
  3. Should you become the Nigerian president; will you follow President Buhari’s anticorruption steps?
  4. If your answer to question ‘2’ above is in affirmative, are you doing that for the sake of peace and tranquility in Nigeria or you fear that, his continuity in government will open all your past and buried atrocities and nemesis may catch up?

Your sincere responses and comments would be appreciated while thanking you for contributing to issues affecting a sovereign developing nation-Nigeria.


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Workplace Attendance

by Hakeem IBRAHIM

posted in Human Resources Management

The strategic organizational functions that deal with issues and comprehensive approach to managing people, workplace culture and environment include attendance in workplace. Work ethics that are more valued by employers include - productivity, teamwork spirit, respect for constituted authority, good attitude to work, good appearance, and of course, attendance.

Although, certain levels of education, training, and experience are important yet, organizational management looks at work ethics as equally important.

Attendance, like all other work ethics, affects every aspect of the workplace and the entire business, most importantly livestock business, as found in most African countries where manual labor contributes above 80 percent of the farm activities.

Good attendance attitude in any workplace may include the following:

  • Showing up for duty on time more often
  • Giving proper notification of absence, tardiness (slow action)
  • Stickiness to work schedules
  • Readiness to start work on time
  • Remaining on the job during complete day or night duty
  • Limited use of leave, and so on.

All these should be quantified and verified through proper taking of employee attendance and leave records for important future appraisals and other references.

Self-discipline which is the act of developing the disciplinary nature of doing right, in the right way, at all times with a determination to succeed in all aspects in the life of an individual cannot be over emphasized in workplace attendance ethics. At times, the most qualified applicant can lose out due to attendance problem.

In many organizations, the insensitivity to co-workers, unaccountability for responsibilities and poor interest in organizational success are signs and attitudes of employees with poor attendance.

Effects of Poor Attendance in Workplace

Absent and tardy (very slow) workers affect co-workers, customers and other clients in the following ways:

  • Worker who absent from work mostly leaves important work for fewer coworkers
  • Absenteeism creates more work and encourages clock-watching attitude among others
  • Inconclusive job automatically becomes roll over to another day
  • This disrupts and causes reschedule of work target, planned off/ leave of workers
  • It disturbs supervisors already created staffing plans and may distract their attention
  • It delays the achievement of important and targeted company operational objectives
  • It also results in poor effectiveness and productivity
  • Absenteeism encourages bad feelings among other workers that are following the company rules, and practice good work ethics
  • Absenteeism also creates room for loss of clients, customers’ confidence
  • In general, it affects the company’s earnings and profits.

To Encourage Workplace Attendance

Management and supervisors can easily manage employee attendance to reduce attendance problems and its effects in two or more ways. These are based on the nature of operation and available conditions:

  1. Progressive Discipline could be achieved through:
  • Counseling employee about his/her performances, this may unfold the likely challenges being faced
  • Verbal warning and reprimand (unapproved) of employee poor performances
  • Documented written warning to improve on poor performances
  • Suspension of individuals who failed to improve for certain number of days
  • Finally, terminate the employment if refused to improve
  • 2. Attendance Encouragement involves:
  • Encouraging supervisors on good record keeping for effective reference
  • More positive ways to track the time-off of employees
  • Ensuring same time-off rules for every employees in fairness and justice and
  • Introducing a good sick leave or paid vacation as Paid Time Off (PTO) policy
  • Appreciate, respect, and recognize positive employee attendance without the feeling that they must be paid extra for doing their job.

​In conclusion, many employment opportunities create consequences employees experience when failing in his or her work attendance. This is mostly important and helpful to all employees with good attendance and hard work.In conclusion, many employment opportunities create consequences employees experience when failing in his or her work attendance. This is mostly important and helpful to all employees with good attendance and hard work.

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by Hakeem IBRAHIM

posted in General.

Dear friends,

Request for Assistance to Complete MSc. Program

I think it will be an exceeding saving of time and more business-like if I avoid all preliminaries and go straight into the objectives of this letter.

I am writing as a financially suspended online Nigeria student at Walden University, 650 S. Exeter Street, Baltimore, MD. 21202. Telephone: +18009253368; with the following student details:

Student Name - Hakeem IBRAHIM

Student ID Number - A00589014

Study Program - M.S. in Human Resource Management

Due to my inability to support the study program as expected my two-semester outstanding fees rose to US$9,056.00 (Nine Thousand and Fifty-Six Dollars).

Although, the total fees required for the whole program are detailed below:

Total Tuition Fee - $27,300.00 (Books & materials included)

Total Technology fee - $800.00 (5 semesters)

Sub-total - $28,100.00

This is a staggering figure! More staggering indeed does it become, when it is realized that I, who owe or require this amount have nothing in all the world to transform to such a fortune, excepting my past academic certificates which qualified me to be admitted into the program, my good faith, and my God-given academic prowess which again are value only so long as I continue to breathe the breath of life!

I am currently, not only, a family man of four with two octogenarian parents as dependants, but also, their bread winner. With about US$300 (naira equivalent) as monthly salary, this take home is far below my needs; one major and important reason to think of furthering my educational ambition at MSc. level, possibly for better income to liberate myself from the hardship. With this salary, my commitments, and responsibilities; where on earth could I get this money? Who in Nigeria today could give US$28,100 free financial support to help his fellow-man? Henry Doherty, Esq., Moshood Abiola, and many others of illustrious memories who did the like to many successful Nigerians are no more. But, after meticulous shifting and weighing, I hit upon my readers, media houses, the concerned great citadel of learning, and many other well meaning individuals and corporate organizations from wherever you may be reading this, to hear about my predicaments for possible direct or indirect/ referral assistance.

I have no doubts whatsoever in my mind that, out of the bounty with which providence blesses you, you can as well easily afford this humanitarian assistance and service. I have no doubts too that, as a progressive and hopeful man, someone, somewhere will be quiet happy to assist me to pursue the program for which I desire it to a conclusive end.

But then, could any individual or organization take this risk? That is the question. As I have mentioned, I have no security to request for a loan, I have only paper certificates, faith, and interest. So that no individual or organization would think towards any gain from the whole transactions, except the satisfaction that by helping me to achieve my ambition, you are directly or indirectly helping my family, my developing nation-Nigeria, and even Africa as a whole.

As many sponsors may be ready to assist under certain conditions, such as, studying a particular course or attending a particular university of their choice, this could be possible but my interest, passion, and the outstanding payment at Walden University would continue to hunt my conscience and will not be to the interest of the school for future learners.

Therefore, if I live, by God’s grace as I am optimistic, my helper(s) will not only be happy to see me successful in life but also to the end of their days, have cause to rejoice that they have done one of the most outstanding and most philanthropic acts anybody ever does. Among other things, I shall make excellent use of the opportunity.

Finally, I proceed to the last stage of this letter that, if my request is failed and the opposite results; I think an ambitious man who has no money with which to support himself and his family comfortably, is like a blade without a razor. If I am on the verge of making money after my graduation as a qualified second degree holder, my sufferings have made me crashed again. As, ever since my childhood days, my educational career had recorded appreciable advances in spite of towering difficulties up till the two semesters I have participated in the M.S. HRM class, where I have also tried brilliantly in the four courses I have taken.

At this juncture, I had liked to suggest that, Walden University, individual, and/or organization, if possible, think of this simple alternative of providing better employment opportunity with my first degree certificates (available upon request), for me to be able to:

  1. Commence repayment of the outstanding fees from my salaries.
  2. Continue the program and graduate, as I believe in my interest, spirit of hard work, and the God-given intellectual ability required for sailing through the program successfully.
  3. Support my growing young-souls/family members and the aged parents, either outside or right in my home country.
  4. Possibly contribute and positively liberate others in my community, my developing nation, and Africa from related challenges in future.

Otherwise, all enquiries and financial supports whatsoever are directed to my student account at Walden University at the above address.

Now this is all I have to say. You have my request and the reasons for the request. Anyone can decide to assist in his/her own convenient way or in the manner outlined above. If you do me this great favor, not only I and all that are mine, but also God and Africans will be grateful.

I shall have no cause whatsoever to accept your proffered conditions of offer for assistance as long as they are legally acceptable to me and my family in the long run.

Moreover, since this is a personal request and as the saying goes “Those who do not request are not pitied”. This letter may get to many individuals, corporate bodies or government offices far and near via my blog, media houses, and my other social hub friends. Therefore, you are requested to confirm the author and authenticity of this letter from the following contacts:

  1. Walden University, USA. (Address Above) +1 800 925 3368, +1 612 925 3368
  2. Peter Czynsz (piotr.czynsz@waldenu.edu) +48587319253
  3. Luiz Maia (internationaladvising@waldenu.edu) +1 612 925 3368 Ext. 5371843
  4. Hakeem Ibrahim (hakeem.ibrahim@waldenu.edu, ibrahimhakeem@yahoo.com)

+234 805 102 0506.

Thanks for the time spent while your decision to be of kind assistance shall be well appreciated.

May God bless you all!



Hakeem A. IBRAHIM,

(Lagos. NIGERIA)

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Organizational Performance at a Glance!

by Hakeem IBRAHIM

posted in Human Resources Management

Organization performances are directly related to the type or set of workforce there in, handling different departmental activities. Passionate, talented, and motivated workforce have competitive advantages on organizational existence and better performance. So also, talented but de-motivated and/or motivated non-talented workforce could be a source of drawback to organization's performance and targeted objectives.

Managers are expected to identify the cultural values and norms that exist within their organization and work out the right modalities to measure, and ensure a link between individual employees with the vision and goals of the organization to achieve excellence in the organization on one side, and satisfaction and the personal growth of employees on the other side.

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“MHRM 6600—Week 6”

by Hakeem IBRAHIM

posted in Human Resources Management

360- Degree Feedback System

Organizational and individual leaders and members do receive feedback on their performances but mostly in an anonymous manner from all the departments or constituencies they serve to minimize feedback rating biases. This is due to the general perspectives that, feedback is invaluable, resulting into typical constrain of flow of feedback (information) in organizational system. To free up information flow channels in this situation, 360-degree feedback is identified as a crucial mechanism.

In one developmental study (Aguinis, 2013), 360-degree feedback system is a preferred tool when information about performances of those at the supervisory levels and their roles is to be gathered. According to (Garavan, Morley, and Flynn, 1997, & Ghorpade, 2000) studies which revealed that, performance feedback system known as 360-degree feedback has gained wide coverage and popularity in the corporate world and that, the number of 360-degree feedback instruments has increased significantly within the last 15 years. This is due to the following facts:

  • Organizations require cost effective alternative to assessment
  • There is need for continuous measurement of improvement effort, and
  • The need for job-related feedback for employees affected by career plateau, and so forth.

360-degree feedback is used to measure or examine areas where there are large differences between self perception and other peoples’ perceptions. It is most helpful when used for developmental purposes only and not for administration purposes (Aguinis, 2013). This is because, honesty is more likely recorded when used for individual improvement rather punishment. 360-degree feedback system is usually ideal for individuals with supervisory roles, but can be used for all positions in an organization.

Merits and Demerits of 360-Degree Feedback over Traditional Performance Appraisal

Aguinis (2013) mentioned the various organizational and/or individual importance of 360-degree feedback system as follows – there is ease of providing information about senior officers through 360-degree feedback system, there is also reduction possibility of rating errors because, information is from more sources, both supervisors and managers’ expectations become well known to other employees, there is increased commitments to improve performances when employees are aware of others thought about their performances.

However, certain disadvantages, risks, and hindrances exist from implementing 360-degree feedback system as mentioned by Aguinis (2013). These include – employees’ feeling might be hurt by negative and unconstructive feedback comments, system can only elicit positive result when individuals feel comfortable, and believe on honest and fair rating treatment, when information is provided by fewer raters, anonymity is affected and can lead to distorted information, 360-degree feedback system also require continuous or repeated administration, thereby labeled as 720-degree feedback system due to its complexity.


360-degree feedback, also known as, multisource feedback is an ideal mechanism when obtaining other peoples’ perspectives about individual performances, more importantly, senior officers. This type of performance review program is aimed at, not only better understanding of employees’ strengths and weaknesses but it also measures employee behavior and competencies.

Certain merits and demerits of using 360-degree feedback system also existed for users to be prepared based on likely effects as it relates to their organizational structures and available resources.


Aguinis, H. (2013). Performance management (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, HJ: Prentice Hall.

Garavan, T. N., Morley, M., & Flynn, M. (1997). 360-degree feedback: its role in employee development. The Journal of Management Development, 16(2), 134-147.

Ghorpade, J. (2000). Managing five paradoxes of 360-degree feedback. The Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 140-150.

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Success Behavior

by Hakeem IBRAHIM

posted in General

"The reason most people never reach their goals is that they don't define them, or ever seriously consider them as achievable.

Winners can easily tell you where they are going, what they plan to do along the way, and who will be sharing the adventure with them".............

Denis Waitley

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MHRM 6600 – Week 2

by Hakeem IBRAHIM

posted in Human Resources Management

MHRM 6600 – Week 2

Team Work

When interactions between two or more people in a dynamic, interdependence and valued common goal, objective, and/or mission exist, it is known as a team. To manage a rapidly changing operational context in different organizations, rest heavily on team-based work arrangement. Also, it is uncommon to think of organizations without organizing their activities at least, in part, based on teams (Aguinis, 2013; Rosen et al., 2011). Members of a team have to work together and share common goals; therefore, they need each other. Even though, they may not be permanent, not in the same location, and/or not have ever met in person.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Team Work

Teams are so popular in an educational or an organizational setting due to some merits derivable from team work. These could include the following: the use of teams is believed to improve products and services and increases productivity. Using teams have provided flexible relief to many organizations where lay-offs and restructuring has led to reduced levels of hierarchy. A combined team diverse talent contributions to projects do surpass talent from individuals. Also, it is fundamentally difficult for individuals working alone to respond rapidly and efficiently to changes in business environments (Aguinis, 2013). Additionally, in an education arena, students do share tasks within and outside their comfort zone for skill expansion. Students with different life experiences, ideas, and backgrounds do learn to appreciate points uniquely presented by others (Kokemuller, n.d.).

However, team-based organizations do not mostly outperform others that are not structured around team, as team performance does not, in most cases, fulfill its expectations. Team-based organizations are faced with extended stress of managing teams and the individuals on a team separately (Aguinis, 2013). Furthermore, team projects with pending deadlines do suffer because, decision making always take time in teams. Individual’s different attitude commonly results into conflicts both in organizations and classroom (Kokemuller, n.d.).

Difficulties in Evaluating Individuals on a Team

There exists certain fundamental reasons and merits for undertaking team work as mentioned earlier; despite all the aforementioned, to evaluate individuals working on a team always pose some challenges. These difficulties may include challenges to device ways to assign grades to individual team members because; evaluating inputs from individual to team efforts is problematic. Aguinis (2013) stated further that, individual evaluation and rewards on a team may be difficult, as it can cause demotivation for people from contributing to team performance for personal or self glory.


The fundamental components of a team essentially include a dynamic, interdependent, and interrelationships between two or more people. This is important in managing operational rapid changes in organizations. And it is fundamental that team members have to work together with common team or corporate ideas, goals, and objectives at, or from, their likely different locations.

The merits of team work make it popular in both educational and organizational settings, while the demerits should not be over emphasized as identified in the main part of this write up.

However, certain difficulties arise in the process of evaluating individual efforts that make up a team.


Aguinis, H. (2013). Performance management (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kokemuller, N. (n.d.). Advantages and disadvantages of group work in a classroom situation. Demand Medial Education. Retrieved from http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-disadvantages-group-work-classroom-situation-1333.html.

Rosen, A.M., Bedwell, L.W., Wildman, L.J., Fritzsche, B.A., Salas, E., & Burke, C.S. (2011). Managing adaptive performance in teams: Guiding principles and behavioral markers from measurement. Human Resources Management Review 21, 107-122.

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by Hakeem IBRAHIM

Dear followers, contributors, assigned administrators, and all friends linked up directly or otherwise through other media hub, to this blog; you are all welcome.
Please, note that, the contents of this blog and all its related intellectual work are not intended to serve as legal advice in relation to any individual or corporate situations.
The published materials made available in this blog, from time-to-time are for informational and educational purposes only, and are provided with the understanding that the blog, entirely, is not providing legal advice on any topics treated, as may be related to your needs.
Therefore, for the requirements of legal advice, the services of a competently licensed attorney should be sought.
To this end, this blog and, or the author of its contents (a learner), are not liable to any litigation actions that may result from misunderstanding of information and or idea contrary to the above mentioned and all its related phenomenons.
I hope this information will be of help.
Thank you very much!



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